Dueling doesn't really get covered very much in standard history surveys, which is odd, because it was nearly universal in Western history for hundreds and hundreds of years. It outlasted slavery, child labor and the male-only franchise. It cost tens of thousands of lives -- perhaps even hundreds of thousands -- and with the birth of democracy in the United States it was not limited to the aristocracy. For over a thousand years, it was perfectly legal* to murder another person for pretty much any reason at all as long as he consented to the duel.
Here are some interesting things about dueling:
- Some experts believe that in places and times where dueling is legal and/or acceptable, domestic violence rates are very low.
- John Boswell's son died in a duel. So did Lord Byron's uncle and Strom Thurmond's father. The painter Caravaggio killed one of his best friends in a duel. The Hamilton family were legendary duelists -- Alexander Hamilton lost an infamous duel with Aaron Burr** when the former was a newly released Secretary of the Treasury and the latter was Vice-President, but Hamilton's son had been killed in a duel years earlier, and Hamiltons show up as seconds in a staggering number of duels in the U.S. and Great Britain.
- Dueling is still legal in at least three South American countries, sometimes with the qualifier that one must be a registered blood donor to fight a duel. The vice-president of Peru fought a duel with a congressman as recently as 2002.
- Until the late 18th century, it was perfectly acceptable to sever the head of someone you'd killed in a duel and bring it to dinner with you that night. Up until the early 20th century, people fighting duels were expected to throw a big party the night before.
- Iceland was the only European country to outlaw dueling early on. Sweden banned it briefly in the 17th century because there were so many people dying in duels that the officer ranks of its military were being decimated. It was a matter of national security.
- For many years, the word "gentle" meant "nobly born" -- and, often, therefore dangerous and hotheaded, or at least accustomed to violent dueling. Shakespeare used it often in this sense.
- In many countries, it was a crime punishable by forfeiture, imprisonment, or even death to refuse to fight a duel. And in a few countries, most notably Russia, you were required to initiate a duel if you were properly insulted. (For a while, this was amended to demand that you initiate a duel if someone else heard you being insulted, but this was discontinued when it became obvious that enlisted men were simply setting disliked officers against one another by hearsay in order to get rid of one or both.
- One memorable duel was fought by two French noblemen taking potshots at each other with blunderbusses from hot air balloons. In one American duel, the challenged -- one of the few people who didn't seem to take the whole ridiculous process seriously -- suggested that he and his challenger both leap off a tall building at the same time and whoever hit the ground last was the winner. (Ultimately, he agreed to the ludicrous method of shotguns at five paces, and ended up being literally blown to pieces. His opponent was a U.S. senator.)
- Monarchs often challenged one another to duels, though they never actually fought them. So did American presidents. Andrew Jackson was a notorious duelist who may have killed as many as eighteen people in duels***; he also encouraged other people to fight duels, even when they had forgotten their quarrels or forgiven them. (He goaded John Quincy Adams into a duel on general principles.)
- Dueling was so widely accepted and even encouraged in various military organizations that it was practically a tradition. For almost a century, the standard handbook issued to American sailors upon enlistment in the Navy contained a copy of the standard rules of dueling.
*: In some countries and in some situations, a victorious duelist could be tried for manslaughter, but successful convictions were so rare as to be statistically nonexistent.
**: Though history books make it out as if Burr was some kind of monster and the Burr-Hamilton duel was an aberration, quite the opposite is true. Hamilton was the offending party, and despite his loudly stated objection to dueling, he had fought at least five up to that point. The guns chosen for the duel belonged to him (they were the ones with which his son had been killed) and were said to have claimed eleven lives before his own. James Monroe, having been insulted by John Adams, nearly challenged him to a duel but was convinced not to by James Madison, who pointed out that killing the president wouldn't help a fledgling democracy get off the ground. Even so, between them, the Founding Fathers fought nearly two dozen duels, and two signatories to the Constitution -- Hamilton and Button Gwinnette -- were killed in duels.
***: If true -- the particulars of duels were often vague, and misreported by partisan newspapers and biased witnesses -- this means that the man on the $20 bill personally murdered twice as many people as the Manson Family.